Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung tissue. It is usually due to infection. Pneumonia tends to be more serious than bronchitis. Bronchitis is an inflammation or infection of the large airways - the bronchi (see diagram). Sometimes bronchitis and pneumonia occur together which is called bronchopneumonia.
Difficulty breathing (breaths are rapid and shallow)
A cough that brings up phlegm (thick mucus)
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
High temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
Coughing up blood
Loss of appetite
Joint and muscle pain
A blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
Sometimes, elderly people with pneumonia may become confused and disorientated.
Chest infections are common, especially after a cold or flu during autumn and winter.
Although most are mild and get better on their own, some can be serious or even life-threatening.
A persistent cough
Coughing up yellow or green phlegm (thick mucus), or coughing up blood
Breathlessness or rapid and shallow breathing
A high temperature (fever)
A rapid heartbeat
Chest pain or tightness
Feeling confused and disorientated